By Duncan B Campbell
Когда тактика осады стала неотъемлемым условием успеха в войне, генералы перед инженерами и учеными поставили задачу разработать тактику, прорыва обороны и блокады города с помощью фокусов и обмана. Это увлекательное исследование отслеживает изменения в тактике осады от Древней Персии (6 веке до н. э.) до осад, осуществляемых Римом 2-й век до нашей эры), описывая широкий спектр оборудования и техники, которые использовались в этот период.
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Extra resources for Ancient Siege Warfare. Persians, Greeks, Carthaginians and Romans 546-146 BC
Ships at sea could no longer hope to hide in the nearly empty ocean, as they had for centuries. Airborne radars sensitive enough to detect submarine snorkels became available, a vital boost in protection for Allied shipping in the North Atlantic. S. Navy’s guns, by then radaraimed, far more deadly. Because these fuzes detonated the explosive charge upon sensing a nearby object, gun crews no longer had to hit a plane to bring it down, a nearly impossible feat until the attacker was on top of them.
When it undertakes a military program, responsibility for the critical decisions is shared with government and the appropriate set of tradeoffs become a matter for negotiation. Technological uncertainty and its influence on design decisions should not be underestimated. There could be no guarantees that a stealthy airplane would actually be able to hide from radar until Lockheed built two full-scale demonstrators under the Have Blue program, which started in 1976, some 25 years after the beginnings of R&D on stealth (chapter 7).
S. Government Printing Office, 1945), pp. 228–229; National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Alex Roland, Model Research: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, 1915–1958, NASA SP-4103, Vol. 2 (Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1985), Table C-2, p. 475. 1940–1945, all agencies—Federal Funds for Science XI: Fiscal Years 1961, 1962, and 1963, NSF 63–11 (Washington, DC: National Science Foundation, 1963), Table C-32, p. 136. 38 TRILLIONS FOR MILITARY TECHNOLOGY evaluated products offered by suppliers, whether aircraft engines or steam traps for the engine rooms of navy ships, suggested improvements, and occasionally channeled funds to those suppliers for developments they would otherwise not pursue.