By F. Makken (auth.), A. Uzo Mokwunye (eds.)
Tropical Africa escaped from the glaciers that lined the temperate elements of the realm throughout the Ice Age. The legacy is that almost all of the mum or dad fabrics of the soils of tropical Africa are outdated, hugely weathered and with out bases and phosphate-bearing minerals. conventional farming structures that have been rather sturdy and sustainable trusted lengthy fallow classes after one to 2 years of cropping to take care of the effective skill of the soils. lately and particularly in densely populated components, a significant classification of 'landless' farmers have started to domesticate marginal lands or to invade the 'forest reserves' thereby exacerbating the issues of land and environ psychological degradation. of soil fertility that would facilitate the construction of enough amounts of the main retaining a degree staples has turn into a huge problem to agricultural scientists in tropical Africa. to extend the nutrient offering strength of soils calls for the inputs of fertilizers. those could be natural or inorganic. The potency with which those externally provided inputs can raise agricultural creation and decrease soil and environmental deterioration relies at the skill of scientists to figure out the perfect varieties and amounts of the goods to use to every soil, crop and cropping approach in addition to the facility of farmers to procure needful farm deal with ment skills.
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Extra info for Alleviating Soil Fertility Constraints to Increased Crop Production in West Africa
Kang BT, Wilson GF and Lawson TL (1984) Alley Cropping: A stable alternative to shifting cultivation. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria 18. Keay RWJ (1958) Vegetation map of Africa south of the Tropic of Cancer. Oxford University Press, London 19. Kowal JM and Kassam AH (1978) Agricultural ecology of savanna: A study of West Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford 20. Lal R (1974) Effects of constant and fluctuating soil temperature on growth, development and nutrient uptake by maize seedlings. PI Soil 40: 586-606 21.
2, West Africa: Composite map of vegetation zones and duration of humid period (No, of months with precipitation Pot evapotranspiration), Adopted from Steiner  and Lawson , Legend - - - Number of months with rainfall;;;' Pot evapot; - - - Boundries of vegetation zones S = Sahel, SS = Sudan Savanna; .... NGS = Northern Guinea Savanna SGS = Southern Guinea Savanna; 0000 Northern Limit of Derived Savanna (DS), Rainfall: high variability in space and time Temporal and spatial variation in rainfall is a well marked characteristic of the West African region as a whole [27, Figs.
Lal R (1981) Management of the soils for continuous production: controlling erosion and maintaining physical conditions. Pagcs 188-201 In: Greenland DJ (ed) Characterization of soils in relation to their classification and management for crop production. Clarendon Press, Oxford 23. Lal R (1987) Tropical Ecology and Physical Edaphology. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester 24. Lal R, Lawson TL and Anastase AH (1980) Erosivity of tropical rains. Pages 143-151 In: DeBoodt M and Gabriels 0 (eds) Assessment of Erosion.