Download Advances in optical and electron microscopy by Tom Mulvey, Charles J.R. Sheppard PDF

By Tom Mulvey, Charles J.R. Sheppard

The volumes during this sequence conceal the growth and innovation in optical and electron microscopy at a primary point. it's aimed toward microscopists and researchers not just attracted to microscope instrumentation but in addition in purposes starting from organic options to fabrics examine and commercial inspection

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Each of them corresponds to a cosinusoidal elementary grating of spatial frequency R contained in the object structure; they are focused onto the relevant spectral points in the back focal plane by the action of the objective lens. Neglecting lens aberrations, one finds there the spatial frequency spectrum of the object determined by means of a Fourier transform as 5 o b j (R)= o(r)exp^Rr)dr (1) with the two-dimensional coordinate r in the object plane, the spatial frequency R = (Rx, Ry) of modulus R = /ca, the diffraction angle a, and the wave number of the electron wave k.

At given distances a and b, Δ and σ cannot be chosen independently. H. LICHTE 52 E. Artefacts in the recorded wave Vignetting by the biprism filament From the standpoint of imaging, the biprism is a "foreign" element in the electron microscope. Due to its position between the back focal plane and the intermediate image plane it can introduce artefacts into the area of the image adjacent to the shadow of the filament by screening parts of the Fourier spectrum or even steering them into the wrong direction (Fig.

In general, such images cannot be interpreted by visual inspection. In order to be able to interpret the image, one has to understand the image formation process in detail. Following the Abbe theory of imaging, this can be accomplished while proceeding from the object plane through the imaging lens to the image plane in the following steps (Hanssen and Morgenstern, 1965; Hanssen, 1971) (Fig. 1). First, after interaction of the electrons with the object structure, the incident plane wave, modulated according to o(r) = a(r)exp(i(r)) by the object, may be decomposed into an ensemble of diffracted waves emerging from the object at different diffraction angles oe.

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