By Renata Dmowska
A transparent exposition of the new release T waves by means of earthquakes, the tension accumulation version, and seismic ray tracing and wavefront monitoring in laterally heterogeneous media.
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2001) and Bohnenstiehl et al. (2003). 32 OKAL F IG . 13. Continued. events even in the far field. In this respect, Talandier and Okal (2004b) showed that T waves could be used to compensate for the systematic bias introduced in locations of underwater explosions achieved from ground-based seismic stations, and due to the lateral heterogeneity of crustal phases at continental margins. 5. U SING T WAVES TO E XPLORE THE S EISMIC S OURCE We discuss in this section several approaches to extracting from a T -phase waveform quantitative information relative to the earthquake source.
Adapted (combined; re-labeled) from Odom (1986) and Park et al. (2001). Park et al. (2001) further documented that relatively deep earthquakes (h = 80 km) can excite T waves through scattering by a rough ocean bottom, and also proposed that strike–slip earthquakes seem especially efficient at generating T phases, as observed by Dziak (2001), and further discussed below. , 1988). Following a different strategy, Schmidt et al. (2004) model the scattering of acoustic energy into the water column through the Virtual Source Approach, which uses the Rayleigh–Kirchhoff approximation.
As a result of the operation by the University of Hawaii of a wide aperture hydrophone array in the Pacific, Duennebier and Johnson (1967) located more than 20,000 T -phase sources in the Pacific Basin in 1964–1967, and compared them with the dataset of USCGS epicenters for the same period (numbering roughly half as many events). The authors identified regional trends in spaciotemporal differences between solutions derived from T phases and conventional seismic waves, which could often be ascribed to the influence of source-side processes such as downslope conversion.