By Teresa Scolamacchia, José Luis Macías
This booklet summarizes the stories conducted at of the main lively volcanoes of Chiapas (Mexico): El Chichón and Tacaná. El Chichón erupted explosively in 1982 killing greater than 2000 humans being the worst volcanic catastrophe in Mexico, and Tacaná produced light phreatic explosions in 1950 and 1986. in simple terms after those explosions a surge of latest experiences started to unreveal their volcanic heritage and influence.
This publication provides the state-of-the-art advances in subject matters with regards to the geologic surroundings of the 2 volcanoes, their eruptive background and composition of erupted items, the hydrothermal structures and their manifestations. Volcanic dangers and dangers and attainable mitigation plans are mentioned in keeping with the event of the catastrophic eruption of El Chichón that happened in 1982. The publication also will comprise formerly unpublished fabric at the flowers and the fauna of the quarter and archaeological and social facets of the world that's inhabited via indigenous people.
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Additional info for Active Volcanoes of Chiapas (Mexico): El Chichón and Tacaná
El Chichón emitted potassium- and sulfur-rich trachyandesites and trachybasalts during its eruptive history, whereas Tacaná erupted basalts to dacites with moderate potassium contents, and minor high-Ti magmas. The magmatic evolution in both volcanoes involved similar fractionating assemblages of Fe-Ti oxides, olivine, plagioclase, pyroxenes, amphibole and apatite. Both K2O/P2O5 ratios and isotopic signatures, indicate that the melts of El Chichón and Tacaná experienced signiﬁcant crustal contamination.
7 a Total alkali versus silica diagram (Le Bas et al. 1986), for Tacaná samples; b– j Harker diagrams. Major elements in wt%, and trace elements in ppm. For all samples, major elements were recalculated to 100 % on an anhydrous basis. The gray ﬁeld represents data of El Chichón samples. Data were taken from Macías et al. (2000), Mora et al. (2004), García-Palomo et al. (2006), Macías et al. (2010b), Arce et al. (2012) and Arce et al. L. Arce et al. 25 PhonoTephrite Trachyandesite 8 6 Tephrite Basanite 4 2 Trachybasalt Trachydacite Basaltic trachyandesite Rhyolite 20 Dacite Basalt 15 Andesite Basaltic andesite Picrobasalt 0 Al2O3 Trachyte 10 45 50 55 (c) 60 65 70 (d) SiO2 wt.
1). At a local scale, El Chichón is situated inside a sinistral E-W fault system (San Juan Fault System of García-Palomo et al. 2004; Chap. 1). Tacaná is a typical stratovolcano with steep slopes that belongs to the Tacaná Volcanic Complex (TVC, see Chaps. 1 and 6). It is composed of calc-alkaline, andesitic to dacitic lava flows, and pyroclastic deposits of similar compositions (Mercado and Rose 1992; Mora et al. 2004; García-Palomo et al. 2006). It lies on the trace of the sinistral Polochic-Motagua Fault zone, which according to Guzman-Speziale et al.