By Michael Thielscher
Synthetic platforms that imagine and behave intelligently are some of the most interesting and tough targets of man-made Intelligence. motion Programming is the paintings and technology of devising high-level keep watch over suggestions for self sustaining platforms which hire a psychological version in their surroundings and which cause approximately their activities as a method to accomplish their targets. purposes of this programming paradigm comprise independent software program brokers, cellular robots with high-level reasoning features, and common online game enjoying. those lecture notes supply an in-depth advent to the present cutting-edge in motion programming. the most issues are desk of Contents: creation / Mathematical Preliminaries / Procedural motion courses / motion courses and making plans / Declarative motion courses / Reactive motion courses / advised additional studying
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Additional info for Action programming languages
12) F (∃y) ( f = F(y) ∧ ¬ A,F [x, s ]) range over all fluent functions F and ⊃ ¬Holds( f, t) A,F [x, s ] stands for the γ F+ [a/A(x), s , y] ∨ (Holds(F(y), s ) ∧ ¬γ F− [a/A(x), s , y]) Intuitively, A,F is true if and only if, according to its successor state axiom, fluent F holds after action A. 12) summarizes all positive and negative effects of A(x) by instantiating the successor state axioms for each fluent by this action. 13) These axioms characterize a branching, tree-like time structure rooted in S0 and where the partial ordering s < t indicates that t can be reached from s by further actions.
A more involved approach is to use symmetries to avoid searching twice different but symmetric action sequences. This requires to find suitable symmetries in a problem, like the obvious rotational and reflectional symmetry on the Solitaire board. Since symmetries can often be derived fully automatically from the formal specification of a planning problem, this search strategy also falls into the category of domain-independent techniques. But while domain-independent planning methods may help in some cases, they often do not scale up well to larger problem instances and thus do not suffice to solve problems that occur in practice.
In particular, the empty program is represented by the empty list [ ]. Furthermore, the hash symbol and the keywords pi and star stand for, respectively, nondeterministic choice of sub-programs, nondeterministic choice of arguments, and nondeterministic iteration. Auxiliary predicate sub(V, X, E, E1) means that the GOLOG statement E1 is as E but with term V substituted by new variable X. It is assumed that the procedures of a GOLOG program are encoded using the predicate proc(Name, Body). For the sake of simplicity, clauses for evaluating non-atomic tests have been omitted.