By Stefanie Schwarz, Don F. Westerheijden
This quantity offers a wealthy account of the improvement of accreditation and overview in 20 ecu international locations. The authors are leaders within the box and so they have cooperated during this attempt by way of writing richly various, frequently deep and insightful analyses of the placement of their nation. the 2 editors have extra a synopsis detailing the most traits, and sketching commonalities in addition to contrasts within the advancements throughout Europe. The e-book exhibits how accreditation is turning into a prime mechanism within the steerage of upper schooling everywhere Europe. The booklet is exclusive in its research of forces using in the direction of the unfold of alternative versions of accreditation within the rising ecu larger schooling quarter. Readers will receive an up to date photo of the situation of accreditation within the framework of assessment actions in Europe. they are going to achieve an realizing of why accreditation and assessment platforms have developed the way in which they've got, and to that end, they'll receive extra practical perspectives on possibilities for eu comparison and cooperation during this area.
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Additional info for Accreditation and Evaluation in the European Higher Education Area
If quality improvement was a main aim, giving consequences to evaluation was normally in the hands of the higher education institutions being evaluated. After all, it is within the higher education institution that quality of education is ‘produced’; paraphrasing Dill: quality cannot be ‘inspected in’ from the outside (Dill, 1995). One might equally question whether collecting officially required data – even setting up special observatoires for that purpose (France, Italy) – gives an impetus to the higher education institution’s desire to engage in quality management, or whether it is seen as just another bureaucratic burden to be executed, bearing as little connection to the ‘inner life’ of the higher education institution as possible?
This contrasts with the strong academic influence in most accreditation schemes in Europe, especially in university sectors of higher education systems, where the main thrust of programme accreditation seems to be acceptance of students for further academic studies (especially in the transition from bachelor to master level), even though the Bologna Declaration introduced ‘employability’ into the equation. A. is, in principle, voluntary. Hence the organisations that co-ordinate and operate the accreditation activities are basically membership organisations made up of – and paid by (Adelman, 1992) – academics and professionals (the latter are predominant in the case of specialised accreditation) and higher education institutions (in the case of institutional accreditation).
Before then, and continuing alongside the large-scale accreditation schemes, some professions in certain countries were already accrediting study programmes. This required two enabling factors: on the one hand a certain level of organisation and self-regulation within the professions, and on the other a certain degree of independence from state control. Hence, the bar association in the United Kingdom and Ireland had developed accreditation procedures, while in Germany and similar countries entry to the legal profession was controlled by the government through a Staatsexamen.