By M. Bacon
This booklet introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of examining 3-D seismic information. the subjects it covers comprise simple structural interpretation and map-making; using 3D visualization equipment; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the iteration and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written through expert geophysicists with decades of operating adventure within the oil undefined, the publication should be quintessential for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum undefined.
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Additional info for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
The display on the right shows the syntheticin white overlain on the recordedseismicdata. With luck, hard work and appropriatetestingandparameterselectionthe result of the completeprocessingsequenceshouldbe a sectionthat resemblesa cross-section of the reflectivity throughthe earth with optimisedseismicresolutionand signal to noiseratio. Eachpassthroughthedatauseslessonsleamt from the previousprocessingroute so that the next iterationmay spendmore time on velocity analysisor multiple attenuationor use a differentmigrationstrategyThere is also a different requirementfrom the data as we move from explorationthrough 55 r-l Belerences appraisalanddevelopment.
In addition to a sphericaldivergencecorrection it is common to apply an additional exponentialgain functionwith time to accountfor the transmissionandattenuationlosscs. 2 Deconvolution Step 9, deconvolution,is a processthat sharpensthe waveletand removesany short period reverberations. A shorr, or no gap,givesmaximalwaveletcompression(hencethe namespiking)while a large gap (32 ms or more) attemptsto removeperiodicitycausedby shortperiodmultiples whoseperiod is longer than the gap. In practice,both forms actually perform a mixture ofwaveletcompression andde-reverberation.
In such cases,the S-wavevelocity in the high-velocityzone can be close to the P-wavevelocity in the surroundingsediments,giving a simpler ray-pathfor the convertedray andthepossibilityof increasingthe angularcoverageat depth(fig. 13). 1q. Standardmarine acquisitioncontainssomedatathat haveconvertedfrom P to S and back to P again. Howeveqit is low in amplitudedue to the doubleconversion,and the similarity in termsof moveoutto multiplesmeansthat its identificationandseparationis extremely difflcult.